Donald Robert Perry Marquis July 29, 1878 in Walnut, Illinois - December 29, 1937 in New York City) was a humorist, journalist, and author. He was variously a novelist, poet, newspaper columnist, and playwright. He is remembered best for creating the characters "Archy" and "Mehitabel", supposed authors of humorous verse. During his lifetime he was equally famous for creating another fictitious character, "the Old Soak," who was the subject of two books, a hit Broadway play (1922-23), a silent movie (1926) and a talkie (1937).Marquis grew up in Walnut, Illinois. His brother David died in 1892 at the age of 20; his father James died in 1897. After graduating from Walnut High School in 1894, he attended Knox Academy, a now-defunct preparatory program run by Knox College, in 1896, but left after three months. From 1902 to 1907 he served on the editorial board of the Atlanta Journal where he wrote many editorials during the heated election between his publisher Hoke Smith and future Pulitzer Prize winner, Clark Howell (Smith was the victor). In 1909, Marquis married Reina Melcher, with whom he had a son, Robert (1915-1921) and a daughter, Barbara (1918-1931). Reina died on December 2, 1923. Three years later Marquis married the actress Marjorie Potts Vonnegut, whose first husband, actor Walter Vonnegut, was a cousin of American author, playwright and satirist Kurt Vonnegut Jr. She died in her sleep on October 25, 1936. Marquis died of a stroke after suffering three other strokes that partly disabled him. On August 23, 1943, the United States Navy christened a Liberty ship, the USS Don Marquis (IX-215), in his memory.Marquis began work for the New York newspaper The Evening Sun in 1912 and edited for the next eleven years a daily column, "The Sun Dial". During 1922 he left The Evening Sun (shortened to The Sun in 1920) for the New York Tribune (renamed the New York Herald Tribune in 1924), where his daily column, "The Tower" (later "The Lantern") was a great success. He regularly contributed columns and short stories to the Saturday Evening Post, Collier's and American magazines and also appeared in Harper's, Scribner's, Golden Book, and Cosmopolitan.Marquis's best-known creation was Archy, a fictional cockroach (developed as a character during 1916) who had been a free-verse poet in a previous life, and who supposedly left poems on Marquis's typewriter by jumping on the keys. Archy usually typed only lower-case letters, without punctuation, because he could not operate the shift key. His verses were a type of social satire, and were used by Marquis in his newspaper columns titled "archy and mehitabel"; mehitabel was an alley cat, occasional companion of archy and the subject of some of archy's verses. The archy and mehitabel pieces were illustrated by cartoonist George Herriman, better known to posterity as the author of the newspaper comic Krazy Kat. Other characters developed by Marquis included Pete the Pup, Clarence the ghost, and an egomaniacal toad named Warty Bliggins.Marquis was the author of about 35 books. He co-wrote (or contributed posthumously) to the films The Sports Pages, Shinbone Alley, The Good Old Soak and Skippy. The 1926 film The Cruise of the Jasper B was supposedly based on his 1916 novel of the same name, although the plots have little in common.
In recent years it has become clear that many businesses, motivated by avoiding the rigidity and the price tag associated with labour law and social security, have succeeded in eroding the protection of labour law by creating numerous categories of workers classified as non-employees. In 1996 the International Labour Organisation (ILO) adopted Recommendation 198, which asks its Members to undertake action to reduce 'disguised' employment relationships, with the goal of ensuring that those actually working in an employment relationship are actually given the corresponding legal status. Though these are - from a legal approach - two conceptually different phenomena, they are closely related from a social policy point of view. In order to make a substantial contribution to the discussion on these developments a group of noted European labour law scholars has undertaken the research assembled in this book, recommending labour law reforms based on a close examination of existing conditions. The eight authors analyse measures and legal instruments offered by the European Union and the ILO to cover persons performing personal work, as well as specific developments in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Poland, Germany, and the United Kingdom. In each case they describe viable ways in which categories of persons not treated as employees can be brought under the protection of labour law and how the distinction between employees and self-employed can become more clear. In a concluding final Chapter comparative conclusions are drawn on the basis of this study and recommendations are given to the EU, the ILO and the individual Member States. Among the specific issues covered are the following: * redefining the subordination criterion; * the role of the courts; * determination of the contract of employment; * forms of labour involving more than two contracting parties (e.g., employment agency arrangements); * the legal position of temporary workers; * 'employee-like' persons, e.g., home-workers or commercial representatives; * the 'bogus' self-employed; * introduction and effect of legal presumptions in labour law and/or social security; * developing uniform criteria for the employment relationship; * criteria for identifying self-employed but economically-dependent workers; * extension of protection of labour law to persons other than employees or the self-employed; and * social rights applicable to all work contracts irrespective of their formal qualification; * floor of core rights. This study seriously contributes toward overcoming the reluctant and piecemeal measures commonly taken to extend the protection of the employment contract. Although the authors acknowledge the continuing tension between labour law protection and the need for a flexible workforce, they also recognize the positive effects of best practices that lead to more certainty, fewer disputes, and clear (but still flexible if necessary) agreements. The book will be warmly welcomed as a signal contribution to addressing what one labour law scholar has called 'the most important industrial relations issue of our time.'
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